< Intangible Cultural Heritage
Wooden toys in Hrvatsko Zagorje, Croatia. Pictured here, Stjepan Mikuš in his workshop in the village of Laz Stubički, near Marija Bistrica. The traditional manufacture of wooden toys in northern Croatia is inscribed on the Unesco list of Intangible Cultural Heritage. © Rudolf Abraham
Procession of the Ljelje in the village of Gorjani, near Dakovo, Slavonia, Croatia. Each year on Whitsun (Pentecost) young unmarried women and girls dress in traditional costumes, and following mass go in procession from house to house in the village, dancing for their hosts. The women wear two types of costume - the older participants (known as 'kraljevi' or 'kings') wear tall, elaborate hats and carry sabres; the younger girls ('kraljice' meaning 'queens') wear garlands in their hair. The Procession of the Ljelje was inscribed on the UNESCO list of Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2009. © Rudolf Abraham
Joseph Koó, traditional Blaudruck (indigo dyeing) textile artist, at his workshop in Steinberg, Oberpullendorf, Burgenland, Austria. Blaudruck, the art of resist block printing and dyeing, was inscribed on the Unesco list of Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2018 © Rudolf Abraham
Master cowbell craftsman José Luís Reis Maia making traditional cowbells at the Chocalhos Pardalinho workshop, in the village of Alcáçovas, Alentejo, Portugal (March 2016). Traditional cowbell craftsmanship in Portugal's Alentejo region dates back centuries, but today there are only a handful of master craftsmen left alive, of whom José Luís Reis Maia, aged 72 at the time this photo was taken, is one of the only ones still working. Traditional cowbell craftsmanship in Portugal was inscribed on the UNESCO list of Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2016. © Rudolf Abraham
Master mask-maker and -carver Antal Englert in his workshop. Busó carnival in Mohács, Hungary © Rudolf Abraham
Binche Carnival, Binche, Belgium. On Shrove Tuesday, the local Gilles parade through the centre of town. This is the only day of the year when the Gilles wear their elaborate costumes, including brightly decorated shirts and trousers (the shirt is stuffed with straw), and wooden clogs. Preparations begin around 3am, with guests arriving at the Gille's house, and drummers who then lead the Gille around town, stopping at houses to pick up more Gilles, and at several cafes and bars along the route, and later putting masks on. In the afternoon the Gilles wear enormous hats decorated with ostrich plumes, and throw small oranges to the crowd as they march to the main square. The Binche Carnival is inscribed on the Unesco list of Intangible Cultural Heritage. © Rudolf Abraham
Lithuanian Song Celebration (Song and Dance Festival) 90th anniversary, Vilnius, Lithuania (5 July 2014). Pictured here, Dance Day - a huge, elaborately choreographed traditional dance performance, held in the Zalgiris Stadium in Vilnius. The Song Celebration in Vilnius is Lithuania's greatest cultural event, occurring only once every four years, and along with similar festivals in Latvia and Estonia, is inscribed on the UNESCO list of Intangible Cultural Heritage. © Rudolf Abraham.